Does Workplace Friendship Contribute Toward Work Engagement among Employee of West Java’s Industrial Area?


  • Diah Zaleha Wyandini Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
  • H.M Engkos Kokasih Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
  • Intan Faridah Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia



workplace friendship, work engagement, West Java’s industrial area


Organization needed energetic and dedicated employees, employees who are engaged with their work. But some surveys show that engagement among employee specially millennials tend to be decreased. One of the factors can contributed toward work engagement is workplace friendship. This study aims to examine whether workplace friendship contribute toward work engagement among employee in the industrial area of ​​West Java. The participants involved were 409 employees in the industrial area of ​​West Java (Bekasi, Karawang, Purwakarta, and Bandung Raya) with a minimum working period of one year or more. The instruments used in this study were the Workplace Friendship Scale (WFS) to measure workplace friendships with a reliability of 0. 687 and The Utrecht Work Engagement (UWES) to measure work engagement with a reliability of 0.929. The data analysis technique used is simple linear regression analysis using the SPSS version 26 program. The results show that workplace friendship contribute toward work engagement among employee in the industrial area of West Java


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmed, U., Majid, A. H. A., Al-Aali, L. A., & Mozammel, S. (2019). Can meaningful work really moderate the relationship between supervisor support, coworker support and work engagement? Management Science Letters, 9(2), 229–242.

Al Khajeh, E. H. (2018). Leadership styles on organizational performance. Journal of Human Reseources Management Research, 2018, 1–10.

Alok, K., & Israel, D. (2012). Authentic Leadership & Work Engagement. 47(3), 498–510.

Ariyabuddhiphongs, V., & Boonsanong, C. (2019). Workplace Friendship, Trust in the Leader and Turnover Intention: The Mediating Effects of Work Engagement. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 9(4), 184.

Asgharian, R., Anvari, R., Bt. Ahmad, U. N. U., & Tehrani, A. M. (2015). The Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction on the Relationship between Workplace Friendships and Turnover Intention in Iran Hotel Industry. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(6), 304–314.

Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Walumbwa, F. O., Luthans, F., & May, D. R. (2004). Unlocking the mask: A look at the process by which authentic leaders impact follower attitudes and behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 15(6), 801–823.

Azzadina, I. (2018). Trend Employee Engagement 2018. Diakses pada 16 Maret 2021, dari

Bakker, A. B. (2011). An evidence-based model of work engagement. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(4), 265–269.

Bakker, A. B., & Bal, P. M. (2010). Weekly work engagement and performance: A study among starting teachers. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(1), 189–206.

Bakker, A. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2010). Where to go from here: Integration and future research on work engagement. Work Engagement: A Handbook of Essential Theory and Research, 181–196.

Berman, E. M., West, J. P., & Richter, M. N. (2002). Workplace Relations: Friendship Patterns and Consequences (According to Managers). 217–230.

Cao, F., & Zhang, H. (2020). Workplace friendship, psychological safety and innovative behavior in China: A moderated-mediation model. Chinese Management Studies, 14(3), 661–676.

Chen, C. Y., Mao, H. Y., Hsieh, A. T., Liu, L. L., & Yen, C. H. (2013). The relationship among interactive justice, leader-member exchange, and workplace friendship. Social Science Journal, 50(1), 89–95.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational Research, Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. Fourth Edition. Boston MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Field, L. K., & Buitendach, J. H. (2011). Happiness, work engagement and organizational commitment of support staff at a tertiary education institution in South Africa. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 37(1), 1–10.

Gozukara, I., & Simsek, O. F. (2015). Role of Leadership in Employees’ Work Engagement: Organizational Identification and Job Autonomy. International Journal of Business and Management, 11(1), 72.

Hassan, A., & Ahmed, F. (2011). Authentic leadership, trust and work engagement. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 80(April), 750–756.

Huh,E and Lee E.S (2022) Can abusive supervision create positive work engagement? The interactive moderating role of positive causal attribution and workplace friendship" Management Decision, Vol. 60 No. 3, pp. 531-549.

Hutapea, E. (2019). Bekasi, Karawang, dan Purwakarta, Wilayah Favorit Industri. Diakses pada 28 Juli 2022, dari

Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological Conditions Of Personal Engagement And Disengagement At Work. Physical Review B, 36(5), 2607–2613.

Kalra, S. (2014). Workplace Friendship , Employee Engagement and Job Burnout : A case of relationship study in BPO Sector of Delhi , NCR Saloni Kalra Assistant Professor , Gitarattan International Business School , IP University ISSN : 2321-1784 Review of. 2(12), 147–157.

Khaleel, M., Chelliah, S., Khalid, J., Jamil, M., & Manzoor, F. (2016). Employee Engagement as an Outcome of Friendship at Workplace: Moderating Role of Job Embeddedness. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 6(6), 1–6.

Kusumaningrum, D. (2017). Dale Carnegie: Hanya 25 Persen Milenial Terlibat Sepenuhnya dengan Perusahaan. Diakses pada 16 Maret 2021, dari

Lemeshow, S., Jr, D. W. H., Klar, J., & Lwanga, S. K. (1990). Adequacy of Sample Size in Health Studies. Biometrics, 47(1), 347.

Li, Y., Castaño, G., & Li, Y. (2018). Linking leadership styles to work engagement: The role of psychological capital among Chinese knowledge workers. Chinese Management Studies, 12(2), 433–452.

Lockwood, N. R. (2007). Leveraging Employee Engagement for Competitive Advantage: SHRM Research Quarterly, 1, 1–12.

Luthans, F., & Avolio, B. (2003). Authentic Leadership Development.

Methot, J. R., Lepine, J. A., Podsakoff, N. P., & Christian, J. S. (2016). Are Workplace Friendships a Mixed Blessing? Exploring Tradeoffs of Multiplex Relationships and their Associations with Job Performance. Personnel Psychology, 69(2), 311–355.

Mitonga-Monga, J., Coetzee, M., & Cilliers, F. V. N. (2012). Perceived leadership style and employee participation in a manufacturing company in the democratic republic of Congo. African Journal of Business Management, 6(15).

Mubarak, F., & Noor, A. (2018). Effect of authentic leadership on employee creativity in project-based organizations with the mediating roles of work engagement and psychological empowerment. Cogent Business and Management, 5(1).

Nielsen, I. K., Jex, S. M., & Adams, G. A. (2000). Development and validation of scores on a two-dimensional workplace friendship scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60(4), 628–643.

Oh, J., Cho, D., & Lim, D. H. (2018). Authentic leadership and work engagement: the mediating effect of practicing core values. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 39(2), 276–290.

Omuris, E. (2019). Workplace friendship in hospitality organizations: a scale development. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31(3), 1390–1411.

Quiñonesa, M., Broeck, A. Van den, & Witte, H. De. (2013). Do job resources affect work engagement via psychological empowerment? A mediation analysis. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 29(3), 107–115.

Radhwan, M., Alzgool, H., Ahmed, U., & Hussain, M. (2020). COVID-19 and Work Engagement : Understanding the Nexus of Leaders Emotional Intelligence , Self-efficacy and Resilience in the Banking Sector of Bahrain. Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica, XXIX, 568–586.

Rahmadani, V. G., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2020). Engaging leadership and work engagement as moderated by “diuwongke”: an Indonesian study. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 0(0), 1–29.

Rich, B. L., Lepine, J. A., & Crawford, E. R. (2010). Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job performance. Academy of Management Journal, 53(3), 617–635.

Safitri, L. (2019). Pengaruh Authentic Leadership Terhadap Work Engagement Yang Dimoderatori Oleh Kemampuan Komunikasi Interpersonal Pada Karyawan Perusahaan Teknologi Informasi (TI) Di Kota Bandung. Skripsi. Tidak Diterbitkan. Fakultas Ilmu Pendidikan. Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia: Bandung.

Santiago, Jaime, & Jaime. (2021). Impact of Authentic Leadership on Work Engagement and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Meditating Role of Motivation for Work. International Journal of Economics and Business Administration, IX(Issue 3), 3–31.

Schaufeli, W. (2012). Work engagement. What do we know and where do we go? Romanian Journal of Applied Psychology, 14(1), 3–10.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Utrecht work engagement scale Preliminary Manual Version 1.1. Occupational Health Psychology Unit Utrecht University, December, 1–60.

Schaufeli, Wilmar B. (2013). What is engagement? Employee Engagement in Theory and Practice, 15–35.

Schaufeli, Wilmar B, & Bakker, A. B. (2010). Defining and measuring work engagement : Bringing clarity to the concept. Work, 10–24.

Singh, V., & Srivastava, U. R. (2020). Role of Workplace Friendship in Mental Health of Hospitality Employees. 15(4), 1–7.

Sugiono. (2004). Konsep, Identifikasi, Alat Analisis dan Masalah Penggunaan Variabel Moderator. Jurnal Studi Manajemen dan Orgaisasi, 1(2), 61-70.

Sugiyono, D. (2018). Metode penelitian kuatintatif, kualitatif dan R & D/Sugiyono. Bandung: Alfabeta, 15(2010)

Sulthan. (2020). Provinsi Bandung Raya, Perlukah?. Diakses pada 28 Juli 2022, dari

Towsen, T., Stander, M. W., & van der Vaart, L. (2020). The Relationship Between Authentic Leadership, Psychological Empowerment, Role Clarity, and Work Engagement: Evidence From South Africa. Frontiers in Psychology, 11(August), 1–13.

Trofimov, A., Bondar, I., Trofimova, D., Miliutina, K., & Riabchych, I. (2017). Organizational commitment factors: Role of employee work engagement. Espacios, 38(24).

Ugwu, F.O., Onyishi, E.I., Anozie, O.O. and Ugwu, L.E. (2022), "Customer incivility and employee work engagement in the hospitality industry: roles of supervisor positive gossip and workplace friendship prevalence", Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, Vol. 5 No. 3, pp. 515-534.

Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Wernsing, T. S., & Peterson, S. J. (2008). Authentic Leadership : Development and Validation of a Theory-Based Measure †. 34(1), 89–126.

Wang, D.-S., & Hsieh, C.-C. (2013). The effect of autenthic leadership on employee trust and employee engagement. Social Behavior and Personality, 41(2), 613–624.

Wei, F., Li, Y., Zhang, Y., & Liu, S. (2018). The Interactive Effect of Authentic Leadership and Leader Competency on Followers’ Job Performance: The Mediating Role of Work Engagement. Journal of Business Ethics, 153(3), 763–773.

Xiao, J., Mao, J. Y., Quan, J., & Qing, T. (2020). Relationally Charged: How and When Workplace Friendship Facilitates Employee Interpersonal Citizenship. Frontiers in Psychology, 11(February), 1–11.

Yan, C. H., Ni, J. J., Chien, Y. Y., & Lo, C. F. (2020). Does workplace friendship promote or hinder hotel employees’ work engagement? The role of role ambiguity. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 46(December 2020), 205–214.




How to Cite

Wyandini, D. Z., Kokasih, H. E., & Faridah, I. . (2023). Does Workplace Friendship Contribute Toward Work Engagement among Employee of West Java’s Industrial Area?. Indonesian Psychological Research, 5(1).