The Effect of Optimism, Happiness and Self-esteem on Quality of Life among Yemeni University Students


  • Ahmed Gamal Ahmed Gawas Ankara Yıldırım Beyazit University



positive psychology, optimism, happiness, self-esteem, quality of life, Yemeni students.


There has been a lack of research in the area of   positive psychology variables in the Yemeni context. For this reason, the current research aims to examine the effect of optimism, happiness, self-esteem, on quality of life among Yemeni university students. It also seeks to test whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between optimism and quality of life. 657 Yemeni university students participated in this study. Positive personality index with three-dimensional (optimism, happiness and quality of life) and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were used. The results revealed a positive correlation between optimism, happiness, self-esteem and quality of life. Quality of life was predicted from happiness, optimism, and self-esteem. The results revealed that self-esteem partially mediates the relationship between optimism and quality of life. Also, results showed differences in happiness, self-esteem, and quality of life due to gender. However, the results did not reveal any differences on study variables due to social status or income level.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdul-Khalek, A. (2017). Happiness and self-esteem as predictors of love of life among a sample of adolescents. Journal of Arab Children, 18, 19–41.

Agberotimi, S. F., & Oduaran, C. (2020). Moderating Effect of Self-Esteem on the Relationship Between Optimism and Life Satisfaction in Final Year University Students. Global Journal of Health Science, 12(3), 12.

Alarcon, G. M., Bowling, N. A., & Khazon, S. (2013). Great expectations: A meta-analytic examination of optimism and hope. Personality and individual differences, 54(7), 821-827.‏

Baumeister, R. F., Campbell, J. D., Krueger, J. I., & Vohs, K. D. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles?‏. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(1), 1–44.

Becker, M. A., Shaw, B. R., & Reib, L. M. (1995). Quality of life assessment manual. Madison: University of Wisconsin.

Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Segerstrom, S. C. (2010). Optimism. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 879–889.

Chavez, R. S., & Heatherton, T. F. (2015). Multimodal frontostriatal connectivity underlies individual differences in self-esteem. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10(3), 364–370.

Cheung, F., & Lucas, R. E. (2014). Assessing the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures: Results from three large samples. Quality of Life Research, 23(5), 2809–2818.

Dababi, K., Dababi, R., & Abdulraman, A. (2019). Relationship between optimism and self-efficacy and happiness for students of JUST. Educational Science Studies, 46(2), 107–123.

Dember, W. N., & Brooks, J. (1989). A new instrument for measuring optimism and pessimism: Test-retest reliability and relations with happiness and religious commitment. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 27(4), 365–366.

Dember, W. N., Martin, S. H., Hummer, M. K., Howe, S. R., & Melton, R. S. (1989). The measurement of optimism and pessimism. Current Psychology, 8(2), 102–119.

Diener, E., & Diener, M. (2009). Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. In Culture and well-being (pp. 71–91). Springer.

Dulaimi, N. A. Z., Hassan, I. M., Ezz El-Din, I. A., & Abbas, A. K. (2012). Self-esteem and its relationship to quality of life for female students at the University of Babylon. Journal of University of Babylon, 20(4), 1126–1141.

Elamrousy, N. (2015). The relationship between the quality of life and scholastic aptitude in the light of some demographic changes among a group of Egyptian students resident in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The International Journal of Specialized Education, 12(4), 137–170.

Gawas, A. G. A. (2022, October 9-10). Optimism and self-esteem and their relationship to quality of life among university students [Paper presentation]. Conference of Student' Mental Health According to Saudi Vision 2030 (pp. 232-252). Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Suadi Arabia.

Gawas, A. G. A. (2020). Prejudice and its relation to the self-esteem of yemeni university students in Turkey. International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, 5(8), 1578–1587.

Habbas, S. (2009). Forgiveness as a mediator variable between the big five factors of personality and feeling of happiness among university students. Journal of Psychological Counseling, 23(327–378).

Hamaydiyeh, A., Khallaf, A., & Bouzidi, D. (2018). Quality of life and its relationship to optimism among a sample of doctoral students. Journal of Research Unit in Human Resource Development, 2(9), 194–217.

Hassanein, E., & Khososy, A. (2016). Relationship between self-esteem, thinking styles and optimism among Al-Azhar University Students according to gender and academic specialization: Predictive differential study. Journal of the College of Education, Al-Azhar University, 171(1), 323–382.

Jamal, N. (2016). Quality of life and its relationship to counseling needs among secondary school students. Damascus university.

Jassam, S. (2009). The effectiveness of a rational and emotional counseling program to improve the quality of life and some associated variables for a sample of elderly people. Al-Mustansiriya University.

Joseph, R. P., Royse, K. E., Benitez, T. J., & Pekmezi, D. W. (2014). Physical activity and quality of life among university students: exploring self-efficacy, self-esteem, and affect as potential mediators. Quality of life research, 23, 659-667.‏

Kadomi, A. (2018). Optimism, quality of life and happiness among students of police, military and security sciences. Arab Journal of Security Studies, 71(33), 191–224. DOI: 10.26735/13191241.2018.007

Kaoud, M. A. (1992). Self-esteem and its relation to some psychological variables in adolescents. Zagazig University.

Ladebo, O. J., Akinboye, O. S., & Aina, O. F. (2017). Happiness and quality of life among Nigerian university students: The mediating role of hope. Journal of Happiness Studies, 18(6), 1697-1714.

Liu, D., Liu, Y., & Chen, X. (2019). Dispositional optimism, positive and negative affect, and life satisfaction of Chinese college students. Journal of Happiness Studies, 20(7), 2267-2284.

Mahmoud, O. (2018). Quality of life between working and non-workingpalestinian women. BAU Journal-Health and Wellbeing, 1(1), 11.

Maier, S. F., & Seligman, M. E. (1976). Learned helplessness: theory and evidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 105(1), 3.

Meshri, S. (2014). Quality of life from a positive psychology perspective: (Analytical study). Journal of Social Studies and Research, 8, 215–237.

Mikkelsen, H. T., Haraldstad, K., Helseth, S., Skarstein, S., Småstuen, M. C., & Rohde, G. (2020). Health-related quality of life is strongly associated with self-efficacy, self-esteem, loneliness, and stress in 14–15-year-old adolescents: a cross-sectional study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 18(1), 1-17.‏

Mishra, K. K. (2014). Optimism as predictor of good life. Gujarat Forensic Sciences, 12, 1–23.

Mowanes, K., & Abu Kwaik, B. (2020). Optimism, pessimism and their relation to self-esteem among Palestinian Authority employees referred to retirement in Gaza Strip-Palestine. Najah University Journal for Research (Humanities), 34(2), 283–308.

Mubarak, B. (2012). Quality of life and its relationship to the social behavior of late-marriage women. Al-Adab Journal, 2(99), 714–771.

Mulkana, S. S., & Hailey, B. J. (2001). The role of optimism in health-enhancing behavior. American Journal of Health Behavior, 25(4), 388–395.

Mustafa, Z. (2018). The relationship between the quality of life, self-esteem and family adjustment of pre-school children. Journal of Scientific Research in Education, 19, 159–182.

Nemček, D., Kraček, S., & Peráčková, J. (2017). Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale analyses among elite and competitive athletes, recreational athletes and inactive individuals. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17, 2305–2310.

Rasmussen, H. N., Wrosch, C., Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (2006). Self‐regulation processes and health: the importance of optimism and goal adjustment. Journal of Personality, 74(6), 1721–1748.

Rimawi, O. (2011). The concept of self-esteem among the orphaned students in the schools of Al Quds Suburb, Sultan Qaboos university. Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 12(10), 23–44.

Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): a reevaluation of the life orientation test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(6), 1063.

Segerstrom, S. C., Taylor, S. E., Kemeny, M. E., & Fahey, J. L. (1998). Optimism is associated with mood, coping, and immune change in response to stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1646.

Seligman, M. E. P., Rashid, T., & Parks, A. C. (2006). Positive psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 61(8), 774–788.

Tahan, l i. (1995). Self-esteem and its relation to some concerns of the aged child. Ain Shams University.

Yahfofi, N. (2002). Optimism and pessimism, and their relationship to some social personality traits among university students. Journal of Psychology, 62(16), 132–151.

Zahran, H. A. (2005). Developmental psychology (6th ed.). World of Books.

Zawi, M. (2019). Attitudes of first-year students of the master of clinical psychology at Al-Masimah University towards some positive psychology variables (quality of life, happiness, optimism). Mohamed BOUDIAF University of M’Sila.

Zayed, K. (2004). Self-esteem among students of the department of sports education at Sultan Qaboos University and its relationship to the level of academic achievement. Journal of Studies at the University of Jordan, Special issue, 321–333.




How to Cite

Gawas, A. G. A. (2024). The Effect of Optimism, Happiness and Self-esteem on Quality of Life among Yemeni University Students. Indonesian Psychological Research, 6(1), 17–28.