Schizophrenia is ranked 4th of the top 10 diseases that burden worldwide. If the population of Indonesia reaches 200 million, it estimates that around two million have Schizophrenia. Based on Data from the World Health Organization (WHO), it estimates that around 24 million people worldwide have schizophrenia.2 the American Psychiatric Association (APA) were reported the incidence of Schizophrenia in the United States is about 1% of the adult population with a total of more than 2 million people. Schizophrenic patients were treated by antipsychotic agents that act to inhibit dopamine receptors, especially D2, and also inhibit adrenergic acetylcholine receptors and serotonin 5-HT2A. It can manifest side effects like extrapyramidal syndrome, amenorrhea, drowsiness, and others. This research aims to the identification of antipsychotic side effects with Glasgow Antipsychotic Side-effect Scale (GASS). 100 schizophrenics in HB. Saanin Mental Hospital were participating in this descriptive study after fulfilling the criteria of inclusion and exclusion. This study used the GASS questionnaire to interview subjects who were signing informed consent and get an explanation about this study. In this study, 92% of subjects reported mild side effects. The frequent complaints were extrapyramidal effects, sedation and CNS effects, anticholinergic effects, and weight gain (93%,80%,70 0% and 70% respectively). We found women complained of the side effects more often (16.38 ± 5.275) than men (12.58 ± 5.484) significantly with the value P = 0.001. Gass instruments can use screening antipsychotic side effects. This study concludes the most side effects complaints being extrapyramidal and drowsiness, and women more commonly found side effects than men.
Lally J, MacCabe JH. Antipsychotic medication in Schizophrenia: a review. Br Med Bull [Internet]. 2015 Jun;114(1):169–79. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/bmb/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/bmb/ldv017
Zahnia S, Wulan Sumekar D. Kajian Epidemiologis Skizofrenia. Majority [Internet]. 2016;5(5):160–6. Available from: http://juke.kedokteran.unila.ac.id/index.php/majority/article/view/904/812
Janoutová J, Janá?ková P, Šerý O, Zeman T, Ambroz P, Kovalová M, et al. Epidemiology and risk factors of Schizophrenia [Internet]. Vol. 37, Neuroendocrinology Letters. Maghira and Maas Publications; 2016 [cited 2020 May 1]. p. 1–8. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26994378/
Riskesdas. Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2018. Kementrian Kesehat Republik Indones. 2018;
Chue P, Agyapong V, Abba-Aji A. Antipsychotic Drugs. In: Side Effects of Drugs Annual. 2018. p. 99–119.
Meltzer HY. Update on Typical and Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs. Annu Rev Med. 2013;64(1):393–406.
Subramaniam S, Putu N, Sasmita S, Bagus C, Lesmana J. Prevalensi efek samping farmakoterapi terhadap penderita skizofrenia di Rumah Sakit Jiwa Bangli , Propinsi Bali. E-JURNAL Med UDAYANA [Internet]. 2018;7(1):22–7. Available from: https://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/eum/article/view/36497
Waddell L, Taylor M. A new self-rating scale for detecting atypical or second-generation antipsychotic side effects. J Psychopharmacol. 2008;22(3):238–43.
Kamil H, Jannah SR, Tahlil T. Stigma Keluarga terhadap Penderita Skizofrenia Ditinjau dari Aspek Sosial Budaya dengan Pendekatan Sunrise Model. Pros Semin Nas Pascasarj Unsyiah. 2017;121–8.
S S, Komariah M, Karlin W. Persepsi Keluarga terhadap Skizofrenia. J Keperawatan Padjadjaran. 2014;v2(n2):124–32.
Ignjatovi? Risti? D, Cohen D, Obradovi? A, Niki?-?uri?i? K, Draškovi? M, Hini? D. The Glasgow antipsychotic side-effects scale for clozapine in inpatients and outpatients with Schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Nord J Psychiatry [Internet]. 2018;72(2):124–9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/08039488.2017.1400097
Dania H, Faridah IN, Rahmah KF, Abdulah R, Barliana MI, Perwitasari DA. Hubungan Pemberian Terapi Antipsikotik terhadap Kejadian Efek Samping Sindrom Ekstrapiramidal pada Pasien Rawat Jalan di Salah Satu Rumah Sakit di Bantul, Yogyakarta. Indones J Clin Pharm [Internet]. 2019;8(1). Available from: http://jurnal.unpad.ac.id/ijcp/article/view/20480/pdf
Katzung B, Trevor A. Katzung's Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. Basic and clinical Pharmacology. 2015.
Whicher CA, Price HC, Holt RIG. Antipsychotic medication and type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose regulation. Eur J Endocrinol. 2018;178(6):R245–58.
Siafis S, Tzachanis D, Samara M, Papazisis G. Antipsychotic Drugs: From Receptor-binding Profiles to Metabolic Side Effects. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2017;16(8):1210–23.
Panariello F, Polsinelli G, Borlido C, Monda M, De Luca V. The role of leptin in antipsychotic-induced weight gain: Genetic and non-genetic factors. Vol. 2012, Journal of Obesity. Hindawi Publishing Corporation; 2012.
Soldin OP, Mattison DR. Sex differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Vol. 48, Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 2009. p. 143–57.
Anderson SG, Livingston M, Couchman L, Smith DJ, Connolly M, Miller J, et al. Sex differences in plasma clozapine and norclozapine concentrations in clinical practice and in relation to body mass index and plasma glucose concentrations: A retrospective survey. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2015 Nov 14;14(1).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.