Heterosexual Transmission as a CRF01_AE HIV-1 Spread Factor in Mimika Papua

Main Article Content

Mirna Widiyanti
Reynold Ubra
Evi Iriani


The HIV epidemic has particular characteristic on each region. The genetic diversity of HIV-1 would affect variability of HIV virus that could potentially most virulent, pathogenic and high transmission rate. Thus it triggers the disease progresivity more rapidly and caused  a new pandemic of HIV infection. The aim of the study is determine the genetic characteristics of HIV-1 on patient with heterosexual transmission based on gene fragment encoding the glycoprotein-41 (gp41) of HIV envelope. Descriptive analytic method and cross sectional design were attended on VCT clinic Mitra Masyarakat Mimika in March-May 2015. Samples of blood plasma from patient with HIV-1 sexual transmission wer amplified using RT-PCR and nested PCR. Genetic characteristics were analyzed with DNA Sequencing using software Bioedit and Mega 5. Identification using sequence analysis  showed two subtypes of HIV patient in Mimika, which were CRF01_AE and B subtypes. There were 40 patients (87%) identified as having genetic characteristics CRF01_AE. Subtypes B was also identified in 6 heterosexual patients. This study suggest that CRF01_AE have heterosexual transmission risk higher than subtype B. Predominance of CRF01_AE contribute to the rapid spread of the HIV epidemic in Mimika


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Widiyanti, M., Ubra, R., & Iriani, E. (2018). Heterosexual Transmission as a CRF01_AE HIV-1 Spread Factor in Mimika Papua. Journal of Health Science and Prevention, 2(2), 108–113. https://doi.org/10.29080/jhsp.v2i2.127


WHO. WHO _ HIV surveillance, estimates, monitoring and evaluation [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2017 Aug 10]. Available from: www.who.int

Gottlieb S. New, more virulent strain of HIV found. Br Med J [Internet]. 1998;317(September):1998. Available from: www.bmj.com

Taylor BS, Sobieszczyk ME, McCutchan FE HS. NIH Public Access. N Engl J Med. 2009;358(15):1590–602.

Geretti AM, Harrison L, Green H, Sabin C, Hill T, Fearnhill E, et al. Effect of HIV-1 Subtype on Virologic and Immunologic Response to Starting Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48(9):1296–305.

Requejo HIZ. Worldwide molecular epidemiology of HIV Epidemiologia molecular do HIV no mundo. Rev Saúde Pública. 2006;40(2):331–45.

Mastro TD, Kunanusont C, Dondero TJ, Wasi C. Why do HIV-1 subtypes segregate among persons with different risk behaviors in South Africa and Thailand ? Aids. 1997;11:113–6.

Kunanusont C, Fay HM, Kreiss JK, Nagrm SR, Phanuphak P, Rakhtam S, Pau CP YN. HIV-1 subtypes and male-to-female transmission in Thailand. Lancet. 1995;345(8957):1078–83.

Roselinda JR. Genotype and transmission Human Immunode fi ciency Virus-1 in seven provinces in Indonesia. Heal Sci J Indones. 2012;3(2):27–31.

Pieniazek D, Yang C LR. Phylogenetic analysis of gp41 envelope of HIV-1 groups M , N , and O strains provides an alternate region for subtype determination. Analysis. 1994;112–7.

Ditjen PP & PL Kemenkes RI. Statistik Kasus HIV/AIDS di Indonesia Dilapor s/d Desember 2013 Cases of HIV/AIDS in Indonesia Reported thru’ December 2013. Update. Jakarta; 2013.

Pratt RJ. HIV & AIDS : 5TH EDITION. Fifth Edit. Wendy Rooke, editor. Health (San Francisco). London, United Kingdom: Hodder Arnold; 2003. 362-64 p.

Oktavian, Antonius, Kridaningsih TN, Wibowo HA, widiyanti M, Wike I FE. HIV-1 subtypes in Jayapura City , Papua Province Indonesia. In: 15th International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012. p. e185.

Widiyanti M, Wibawa T WH. Subtypes and phylogenetic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in Jayapura. Universa Med. 2014;33(1):49–57.

Kalish ML, baldwin A RS. The envolving Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 Envelope Subtypes in Injecting Drug users in Bangkok, Thailand : implications for Vaccine Trial. Aids. 1995;(9):851–7.

Soto-ramirez LE, Renjifo B, Mclane MF, Marlink R, Hara CO, Sutthent R, et al. H IV- 1 Langerhans â€TM Cell Tropism Associated with Heterosexual Transmission of HIV. Science (80- ). 1996;271(7):1–3.

Srisuphanunt M, Sukeepaisarnchareon W, Kucherer C, Pauli G. THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HIV-1 SUBTYPES IN INFECTED PATIENTS FROM NORTHEASTERN THAILAND. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2004;35(3):641–8.

Foley B, Donegan E, Silitonga N, Wignall FS, Busch MP, Delwart EL. Importation of Multiple HIV Type 1 Strains into West Papua , Indonesia ( Irian Jaya ). AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001;17(17):1655–9.

Merati TP, Ryan C, Turnbul S, Wirawan DN, Otto B BI. Subtipe HIV-1 di beberapa daerah di Indonesia dan perannya sebagai petunjuk dinamika epidemi HIV. Indones J Biomed Sci. 2009;2(2):1–25.

Wibowo HA, Setiawaty V SE. Epidemiologi Molekuler genotipe Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) pada orang dengan HIV/AIDS atau ODHA di Jawa Timur dan DKI Jakarta. Bul Penelit Kesehat. 2011;39(1):1–9.

Porter KR. Genetic, Antigenic and Serologic characterization of HIV-1 from Indonesia. Aids. 1997;14:1–6.

Gifford RJ, Oliveira T De, Rambaut A, Pybus OG, Dunn D. Phylogenetic Surveillance of Viral Genetic Diversity and the Evolving Molecular Epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 ᰔ. J Virol. 2007;81(23):13050–6.

W.Louisirirotchanakul S, Beddows S, Cheingsong R, Shaffer N, mastro D, Likanonsakul S, wasi C TG. Role of maternal Humoral Immunity in vertical Transmission of HIV-1 Subtype E in Thailand. J Acquir immune Defic Syndr. 1999;21:259–65.

Most read articles by the same author(s)